Short Form Zero Emissions Fuel Cell pdf ....
Fuel Cell 18-Wheel Trucks + 60' Interstate Bus + Clean Fuel Cell Power
According to United States Department of
Energy, recently .... ‘Fuel Cells have the potential to replace Internal Combustion Engines
[ICE] in vehicles, provide power in
stationary & portable power applications, because they are
energy-efficient, clean & fuel-flexible’
** That is an extremely powerful endorsement from a well-respected,
very conservative, scientific establishment **
Emissions Fuel Cells have become the new buzz word all
over the world - they produce clean, electrical power, emit zero
pollution, with the
only by-product being clean, pure water - just as an added bonus.
Fuel Cells are also 3 - 4
times more efficient
than solar & wind
without killing all those birds, and no need to keep those
mirrors clean, 24/7. Fuel Cells were first
used by NASA to
astronauts over fiftyyears ago ... still
running ... we sure
have come a long way since then, baby.
ICA is not beholden unto any single discipline or system, but can
select the best solution for the client's application. ICA is more than
capable of designing, building, and even funding the very best
possible solution, for any given set of variables ...... from the
Our Zero Emission Power Modules
can be used anywhere in the world - from roof-tops of hospitals, to
data centres, police, military,
to trucks, buses, and cars, to
shopping centres, business parks, and leafy-green residential
neighborhoods - even to supply peak-grid
use when loads are very high - or
as Primary Power Provider without the need to connect to
dysfunctional, missing or broken grids.
Time to replace all those noisy, smelly, dirty ICE 'powerunits' in
all mass-transit buses, trains, haul trucks, and family motor vehicles.
The applications are limited only
by ones imagination - who says you cant have your cake, and eat it -
there's a lot of money to be made
getting rid of all the dirty,
smelly nox/co2/co producing ICE machinery that have strangled all our
cities across Ameica, Asia, Europe,
to death - to the point where
these machines are
destroying sustainable life as we know it ..... time to get to
For the latest
updates, delivery, availability, price, financing packages - kindly
email our CEO directly
Kindly indicate the type of fuel cell application or carbon capture
process you are you most interested in .....
Utility scale applications
Utility and independent power producers seeking multi-megawatt
solutions for clean easy-to-site power near existing
electrical substations or to supply the electric grid
combined heat and power
Ideal applications for our megawatt class fuel cell power plants are
power users with significant and continuous power
needs and that have a use for high grade heat suitable for making
steam. Annual power usage of 11 million kWh or more
supports installation of one of our megawatt-class SureSource solutions.
generators of tens or hundreds of megawatts that are seeking efficient
and affordable carbon capture for gas or
coal-fired power generation, including utilities, independent power
producers and large industrial operations.
ZEV Mass Transportation
ICA has access to leading-edge Zero Emission Vehicle Systems from all
over the world - we are not beholden unto any
single discipline or system, but can select the best solution for the
client's application - thus we are capable of designing,
building, funding the best possible
solution for any given set of variables ....from the ground up
New ZEV Bus & Truck Production startup in Europe post Brexit
submit all formal requests soonest
It is really high time we stopped polluting our cities with dangerous
smog/nox/co contaminants ...
– For business users, buses & trucks, emergency and disaster relief
workers or the military.
power to rural homes, villages, schools, health care centres.
to Telecom base stations, IT systems, Police & Military, and remote
As our customer’s power requirements increase, our modular design
allows for additional modules that
can be stacked
to meet the new requirement without having to replace the existing
system - better ROI
Power usage of 11 million
kWh supports installation of a clean compact, megawatt-class SureSource
New Production startup in
Europe post Brexit - kindly submit
all formal requests to our Group CEO directly
Pure, clean zero-emmissions standby power
source is your megawatt-class SureSource solution
power infrastructure worldwide currently faces the challenge of meeting
the growing market demand for both grid and off-grid
supply. Existing energy providers offer diesel generators, solar
systems and wind turbines as a solution, however none of these
offer the price
and performance of Enocell’s DMFC/PEMFC modules.
soaring energy demand levels in countries such as India will not be met
by solar or wind power systems alone. With government
aimed at reducing diesel generation; distributed power solutions
incorporating fuel cell products presents a real opportunity
alternative energy source.
The Enocell fuel cell is a reliable multi-use power
module that is usable independent of the electricity grid. The
Enocell fuel cell module
sustainability and low carbon benefits and offers an alternative to
diesel power generators or power back up units.
implementing a fuel cell system for your alternative energy needs, you
have a solution that:
• Significantly outperforms state
of the art fuel cell catalysts.
• Is highly adaptable and
• Delivers overall efficiency
that is 4 times greater than solar power and 3 times greater than wind
• Uses fewer natural
resources in order to meet consumers’ vast energy needs.
• Fuel cells do not
pollute, produce pure water as a by-product - place one in a field,
watch the birds & butterflies come.
• Zero carbon combined with
multiple use and high reliability - 12/24 months ROI on average -
breathing is easy, finally
Hydrogen as Fuel
generators consume massive quantities of oil/gas/coal and produce vast
amounts of co/co2/nox etc into our pristine
atmosphere - the smartest, most efficient way of eliminating the above
smog problem, is to simply use a 'carbon-free' fuel
source - hydrogen. A hydrogen-fueled Fuel Cell produces highly
efficient power and its only by-product is H2O or water
Converting the above oil/gas/coal to hydrogen is the current
modus-operandi, but the process is highly inefficient add the
high production costs, plus by-products are simply exacerbating our
global pollution-problem, and not reducing/solving it
Electrolysis of Water
Electrolysis consists of using electricity to split water into hydrogen
and oxygen. Electrolysis of water is 75-80% efficient
which is a higher efficiency than steam reforming of natural gas which
is 60-70% efficient. The (electrical) efficiency of
electrolysis is expected to reach 82-86% before 2030, while also
maintaining durability as progress in this area continues
Water electrolysis can operate between 50-80'C, while steam/methane
reforming requires much higher temps of between
700-1100'C. The difference between the two methods is the amount of
primary energy used, be it electricity for electrolysis
or natural gas for steam methane reforming - the higher energy use is
significant, as are the huge increases in pollutants.
Due to the use of water, as a readily available resource, electrolysis
and similar water-splitting methods have attracted the
interest of the scientific community. Sea Water - 75% of the earth's
mass, is an obvious clean, abundant carbon-free source
for most countries in the world, with the added bonus of producing
potable water as well .. now for some interesting bits.
Theoretical maximum efficiency
The energy efficiency of a system that converts energy is measured by
the ratio of the amount of useful energy put out by
the system to the total amount of energy that is put in, as a
percentage of the total input energy. In the case of fuel cells,
useful output energy is measured in electrical energy produced by the
system. Input energy is the energy stored in the fuel.
According to the U.S. Department of Energy, fuel cells are generally
between 70–80% energy efficient.
This is higher than some other systems for energy generation. For
example, the typical internal combustion engine of a car
is about 25% energy efficient. In combined heat and
power (CHP) systems, the heat produced by the fuel cell is captured
and put to use, increasing the efficiency of the system to up to 85–90%.
The theoretical maximum efficiency
of any type of power generation system is never reached in practice,
and it does not
consider other steps in power generation, such as production,
transportation and storage of fuel and conversion of the
electricity into mechanical power. However, this calculation allows the
comparison of different types of power generation.
The maximum theoretical energy efficiency of a fuel cell is 83%,
operating at low power density and using pure hydrogen
and oxygen as reactants (assuming no heat recapture) According to
the World Energy Council, this compares with a max
imum theoretical efficiency of 28% for internal combustion engines.
In a fuel-cell vehicle the tank-to-wheel efficiency is greater than 45%
at low loads and shows average values of say 36% in
driving cycle like the NEDC (New
European Driving Cycle) is used as test procedure. The comparable
NEDC value for a
Diesel vehicle is 22%. In 2008
Honda released a demonstration fuel cell
electric vehicle (the Honda FCX Clarity) with fuel
stack claiming a 60% tank-to-wheel efficiency.
Stationary fuel cells are used for commercial, industrial and
residential primary and backup power generation. Fuel cells are
very useful as power sources in remote
locations, such as spacecraft, remote weather stations, large parks,
centers, rural locations including research stations, and in certain
applications. A fuel cell system running on hydro
gen can be compact and
lightweight, and have no major moving parts.
*** Because fuel cells have no
moving parts and do not involve combustion, in ideal conditions they
can achieve up to 99.9999%
reliability. This equates to
than one minute of downtime in a six-year period.
Since fuel cell electrolyzer
systems do not store fuel in themselves, but rather rely on external
storage units, they can be success
fully applied in large-scale energy
storage, rural areas being one example. There are so many different
types of stationary fuel
cells so efficiencies vary, but most are between 40% and 60% energy
efficient. However, when the fuel cell's waste heat is used
to heat or cool a building in a cogeneration
system this efficiency can increase to 85% or higher
Portable power systems
Portable fuel cell systems are generally classified as weighing under
10 kg and providing power of less than 5 kW. Potential
market size for smaller fuel cells
is quite large with an up to 40% per
annum potential growth rate and a market size of about
$10 billion, leading a great deal of research to be devoted to the
development of portable power cells. Within this market two
been identified. The first is the microfuel cell market, in the 1-50 W
range for power smaller electronic devices.
The second is the 1-5 kW
range of generators for larger scale power generation (e.g. military
outposts, remote oil fields).
Microfuel Cells are
primarily aimed at penetrating the market for
phones and laptops. This can be primarily attributed to the
advantageous energy density
provided by fuel cells over a lithium-ion
battery, for the entire system. For a battery, this system
includes the charger as well as
itself. For the fuel cell this system would include the cell, the
necessary fuel plus all
the other peripheral attachments.
Taking the full system into
consideration, fuel cells provide up to 530 Wh/kg compared to 44 Wh/kg
for lithium ion batteries.
However, while the weight of fuel cell systems offer a distinct
advantage the current costs are not in their favor, and dont forget
Moore's Law - as Fuel Cell
costs drop exponentially over years, if not months - watch as
efficiencies/markets ramp up very fast
The key advantage of fuel cells in this special market is the huge
power-to-weight ratio. While fuel cells might be expensive now,
they work well for remote locations that require
lightweight, dependable energy.
In a US military 72x hour excursion a fuel cell
weighed in at only 15lb/7kg
29lb/14kg, for all
needed for the same energy - it is really a no-brainer.
The future is now ....
zero combustion = zero air pollution
zero moving parts = 99.9% reliability
water as fuel = abundant, cheap fuel supply
light weight = very high power-density
There's A Big New Kid On The Block - The Compact Fusion Reactor
Container Sized Power Blocs - Kiss The Grid
Goodbye ... Forever
Affordable Housing for Police, Military,
Commercial Buildings, Schools, etc
Pylons, Transmission Cable, Switchyards,
Substations, Distribution Boards, etc
Unmanned GPS Drone
Large Civil & Military Works, All
Mining, Rail & Road, Military Asset Protection
Tanks, Armored Personnel Carriers,
Howitzers, Ammunition, Cannons, etc