"HOME"           Home                                                                                                                                                                            Short Form Zero Emissions Fuel Cell pdf .... "PDF "         


                                                                                           Zero Emissions Fuel Cells



                                                                                                                   

                                           ZEV Fuel Cell 18-Wheel Trucks + 60' Interstate Bus + Clean Fuel Cell Power Plants

                               

                               
According to United States Department of Energy, recently ....  ‘Fuel Cells have the potential to replace Internal Combustion Engines
                               [ICE] in
vehicles, provide power in stationary & portable power applications, because they are energy-efficient, clean & fuel-flexible’

                                ** That is an extremely powerful endorsement from a well-respected, very conservative, scientific establishment **

                                Zero Emissions Fuel Cells have become the new buzz word all over the world - they produce clean, electrical power,  emit zero air
                                pollution
, with the only by-product being clean, pure water - just as an added bonus. Fuel Cells are also 3 - 4 times more efficient
                                than solar & wind generation, without killing all those birds, and no need to keep those mirrors
clean, 24/7. Fuel Cells were first
                                used by NASA to provide power for astronauts over fiftyyears ago ...  still running ... we sure have come a long way since then, baby.
 
                                ICA is not beholden unto any
single discipline or system, but can select the best solution for the client's application. ICA is more than
                                capable of designing,
building, and even funding the very best possible solution, for any given set of variables ......  from the ground up.
                               
                                Our Zero Emission Power Modules can be used anywhere in the world - from roof-tops of hospitals, to data centres, police, military,
                                to trucks, buses, and cars, to shopping centres, business parks, and leafy-green residential neighborhoods - even to supply peak-grid
                                use when loads are very high - or as Primary Power Provider without the need to connect to  dysfunctional, missing or broken grids.

                                Time to replace all those noisy, smelly, dirty ICE 'powerunits' in all mass-transit buses, trains, haul trucks, and family motor vehicles.
                                The applications are limited only by ones imagination - who says you cant have your cake, and eat it - there's a lot of money to be made
                                getting rid of all the dirty, smelly nox/co2/co producing ICE machinery that have strangled all our cities across Ameica, Asia, Europe,
                                to death - to the point where these machines are destroying sustainable life as we know it .....  time to get to work, gentlemen.


                               For the latest updates, delivery, availability, price, financing packages - kindly email our CEO directly                                     

                                                                                                 
                                   
                                                            
                                      Kindly indicate the type of fuel cell application or carbon capture process you are you most interested in .....

                                      Utility scale applications

                                      Utility and independent power producers seeking multi-megawatt solutions for clean easy-to-site power near existing
                                      electrical substations or to supply the electric grid

                                     
On-site combined heat and power

                                      Ideal applications for our megawatt class fuel cell power plants are power users with significant and continuous power
                                      needs and that have a use for high grade heat suitable for making steam. Annual power usage of 11 million kWh or more
                                      supports installation of one of our megawatt-class SureSource solutions.

                                      Carbon capture

                                      Power generators of tens or hundreds of megawatts that are seeking efficient and affordable carbon capture for gas or
                                      coal-fired power generation, including utilities, independent power producers and large industrial operations.

                                      ZEV Mass Transportation

                                      ICA has access to leading-edge Zero Emission Vehicle Systems from all over the world - we are not beholden unto any
                                      single discipline or system, but can select the best solution for the client's application - thus we are capable of designing,
                                      building, funding the best possible solution for any given set of variables ....from the ground up


                                    

                                               New ZEV Bus & Truck Production startup in Europe post Brexit ....... kindly submit all formal requests soonest

                                    

                                             It is really high time we stopped polluting our cities with dangerous smog/nox/co contaminants ...

                                                
                                       

                                                Portable power – For business users, buses & trucks, emergency and disaster relief workers or the military.
                                                Stationary power to rural homes, villages, schools, health care centres.
                                                Back-up power to Telecom base stations, IT systems, Police & Military, and remote monitoring systems.

                                                Modular Product Line

                                                As our customer’s power requirements increase, our modular design allows for additional modules that
                                                can be stacked to meet the new requirement without having to replace the existing system - better ROI


                                       

                                                 Power usage of 11 million kWh supports installation of a clean compact, megawatt-class SureSource solution ....


                                      

                                                
New Production startup in Europe post Brexit - kindly submit all formal requests to our Group CEO directly                    
           
              
                                                                                            
                                                                


                                                                
Pure, clean zero-emmissions standby power source is your megawatt-class SureSource solution

                               The power infrastructure worldwide currently faces the challenge of meeting the growing market demand for both grid and off-grid
                                energy supply. Existing energy providers offer diesel generators, solar systems and wind turbines as a solution, however none of these
                                offer the price and performance of Enocell’s DMFC/PEMFC modules.

                                The soaring energy demand levels in countries such as India will not be met by solar or wind power systems alone. With government
                                strategies aimed at reducing diesel generation; distributed power solutions incorporating fuel cell products presents a real opportunity
                                for an alternative energy source.

                                The Enocell fuel cell is a reliable multi-use power module that is usable independent of the electricity grid.  The Enocell fuel cell module
                                also has sustainability and low carbon benefits and offers an alternative to diesel power generators or power back up units.
                                By implementing a fuel cell system for your alternative energy needs, you have a solution that:

                                        • Significantly outperforms state of the art fuel cell catalysts.

                                        • Is highly adaptable and scalable.

                                        • Delivers overall efficiency that is 4 times greater than solar power and 3 times greater than wind power.

                                        • Uses fewer natural resources in order to meet consumers’ vast energy needs.     

                                        • Fuel cells do not pollute, produce pure water as a by-product - place one in a field, watch the birds & butterflies come.

                                        • Zero carbon combined with multiple use and high reliability - 12/24 months ROI on average - breathing is easy, finally



                                                                                                     
      


                                       Hydrogen as Fuel

                                       Power generators consume massive quantities of oil/gas/coal and produce vast amounts of co/co2/nox etc into our pristine
                                       atmosphere - the smartest, most efficient way of eliminating the above smog problem, is to simply use a 'carbon-free' fuel
                                       source - hydrogen. A hydrogen-fueled Fuel Cell produces highly efficient power and its only by-product is H2O or water
                                       Converting the above oil/gas/coal to hydrogen is the current modus-operandi, but the process is highly inefficient add the
                                       high production costs, plus by-products are simply exacerbating our global pollution-problem, and not reducing/solving it
                   
                                       Electrolysis of Water

                                       Electrolysis consists of using electricity to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Electrolysis of water is 75-80% efficient
                                       which is a higher efficiency than steam reforming of natural gas which is 60-70% efficient. The (electrical) efficiency of
                                       electrolysis is expected to reach 82-86% before 2030, while also maintaining durability as progress in this area continues

                                       Water electrolysis can operate between 50-80'C, while steam/methane reforming requires much higher temps of  between
                                       700-1100'C. The difference between the two methods is the amount of primary energy used, be it electricity for electrolysis
                                       or natural gas for steam methane reforming - the higher energy use is significant, as are the huge increases in pollutants.

                                       Due to the use of water, as a readily available resource, electrolysis and similar water-splitting methods have attracted the
                                       interest of the scientific community. Sea Water - 75% of the earth's mass, is an obvious clean, abundant carbon-free source
                                       for most countries in the world, with the added bonus of producing potable water as well .. now for some interesting bits.

                                                      

                                       Theoretical maximum efficiency

                                       The energy efficiency of a system that converts energy is measured by the ratio of the amount of useful energy put out by
                                       the system to the total amount of energy that is put in,  as a percentage of the total input energy. In the case of fuel cells,
                                       useful output energy is measured in electrical energy produced by the system. Input energy is the energy stored in the fuel.
                                       According to the U.S. Department of Energy, fuel cells are generally between 70–80% energy efficient.

                                       This is higher than some other systems for energy generation. For example, the typical internal combustion engine of a car
                                        is about 25% energy efficient. In combined heat and power (CHP) systems, the heat produced by the fuel cell is captured
                                       and put to use, increasing the efficiency of the system to up to 85–90%.

                                       The theoretical maximum efficiency of any type of power generation system is never reached in practice, and it does not
                                       consider other steps in power generation, such as production, transportation and storage of fuel and conversion of the
                                       electricity into mechanical power. However, this calculation allows the comparison of different types of power generation.
                                      
                                       The maximum theoretical energy efficiency of a fuel cell is 83%, operating at low power density and using pure hydrogen
                                       and oxygen as reactants (assuming no heat recapture) According to the World Energy Council, this compares with a max
                                       imum theoretical efficiency of 28% for internal combustion engines.

                                       In practice

                                       In a fuel-cell vehicle the tank-to-wheel efficiency is greater than 45% at low loads and shows average values of say 36% in
                                       a driving cycle like the NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) is used as test procedure. The comparable NEDC value for a
                                      Diesel vehicle is 22%. In 2008 Honda released a demonstration fuel cell electric vehicle (the Honda FCX Clarity) with fuel
                                       stack claiming a 60% tank-to-wheel efficiency.

                                       Power

                                       Stationary fuel cells are used for commercial, industrial and residential primary and backup power generation. Fuel cells are
                                       very useful as power sources in remote locations, such as spacecraft, remote weather stations, large parks, communications
                                       centers, rural locations including research stations, and in certain military applications. A fuel cell system running on hydro
                                       gen can be compact and lightweight, and have no major moving parts.

                                       *** Because fuel cells have no moving parts and do not involve combustion, in ideal conditions they can achieve up to 99.9999%
                                       reliability.  This equates to less than one minute of downtime in a six-year period.

                                       Since fuel cell electrolyzer systems do not store fuel in themselves, but rather rely on external storage units, they can be success
                                       fully applied in large-scale energy storage, rural areas being one example. There are so many different types of stationary fuel
                                       cells so efficiencies vary, but most are between 40% and 60% energy efficient. However, when the fuel cell's waste heat is used
                                       to heat or cool a building in a cogeneration system this efficiency can increase to 85% or higher

                                       Portable power systems

                                       Portable fuel cell systems are generally classified as weighing under 10 kg and providing power of less than 5 kW.  Potential
                                       market size for smaller fuel cells is quite large with an up to 40% per annum potential growth rate and a market size of about
                                       $10 billion, leading a great deal of research to be devoted to the development of portable power cells. Within this market two
                                       groups have been identified. The first is the microfuel cell market, in the 1-50 W range for power smaller electronic devices.
                                       The second is the 1-5 kW range of generators for larger scale power generation (e.g. military outposts, remote oil fields).

                                       Microfuel Cells are primarily aimed at penetrating the market for phones and laptops. This can be primarily attributed to the
                                       advantageous energy density provided by fuel cells over a lithium-ion battery, for the entire system. For a battery, this system
                                       includes the charger as well as the battery itself. For the fuel cell this system would include the cell, the necessary fuel plus all
                                       the other peripheral attachments.

                                       Taking the full system into consideration, fuel cells provide up to 530 Wh/kg compared to 44 Wh/kg for lithium ion batteries.

                                       However, while the weight of fuel cell systems offer a distinct advantage the current costs are not in their favor, and dont forget
                                       Moore's Law -  as Fuel Cell costs drop exponentially over years, if not months - watch as efficiencies/markets ramp up very fast

                                       The key advantage of fuel cells in this special market is the huge power-to-weight ratio. While fuel cells might be expensive now,
                                        they work well for remote locations that require lightweight, dependable energy. In a US military 72x hour excursion a fuel cell
                                        weighed in at only 15lb/7kg compared to 29lb/14kg, for all batterry types, needed for the same energy - it is  really a no-brainer.

                                       The future is now ....

                                       zero combustion = zero air pollution
                                       zero moving parts = 99.9% reliability  
                                       water as fuel = abundant, cheap fuel supply
                                       light weight = very high power-density


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